In most cases, a person who wants to become a citizen of the United States through naturalization must first be a permanent resident. By becoming a U.S. citizen, you gain many rights that permanent residents or others do not have, including the right to vote. To be eligible for naturalization, you must first meet certain requirements set by U.S. law.
Basic requirements for naturalization
In order to be eligible for naturalization, you must first meet certain requirements required by the U.S. immigration law. Generally, to be eligible for naturalization you must:
- Be age 18 or older; and
- Be a permanent resident for a certain amount of time (usually 5 years or 3 years, depending on how you obtained status); and
- Be a person of good moral character; and
- Have a basic knowledge of U.S. government (this, too, can be excepted due to permanent physical or mental impairment); and
- Have a period of continuous residence and physical presence in the United States; and
- Be able to read, write, and speak basic English. There are exceptions to this rule for someone who at the time of filing is a): 55 years old and has been a permanent resident for at least 15 years; or b) 50 years old and has been a permanent resident for at least 20 years; or c) Has a permanent physical or mental impairment that makes the individual unable to fulfill these requirements.
You may be able to apply for naturalization if you are at least 18 years of age and have been a permanent resident of the United States:
- For at least 5 years; or
- For at least 3 years during which time you have been, and continue to be, married to and living in a marriage relationship with your U.S. citizen husband or wife; or
- Have honorable service in the U.S. military.
Certain spouses of U.S. citizens and/or members of the military may be able to file for naturalization sooner than noted above.
To apply for naturalization, file Form N-400, Application for Naturalization.